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このページは2011年 2月 28日, 22:23に更新されました by OpenCage

    Buttermilk refers to a number of dairy drinks. Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left behind after churning butter out of cream. It also refers to a range of fermented milk drinks, common in warm climates (e.g., Middle East, Pakistan, India, or the Southern United States) where fresh milk would otherwise sour quickly. It is also popular in Scandinavia and the Netherlands, despite the colder climates.

    Buttermilk may also refer to a fermented dairy product produced from cow's milk with a characteristically sour taste caused by lactic acid bacteria. This variant is made in one of two ways:cultured buttermilk is made by adding lactic acid bacteria (Streptococcus lactis) to milk; Bulgarian buttermilk is created with a different strain of bacteria called Lactobacillus bulgaricus, which creates more tartness.

    Whether traditional or cultured, the tartness of buttermilk is due to the presence of acid in the milk. The increased acidity is primarily due to lactic acid, a byproduct naturally produced by lactic acid bacteria while fermenting lactose, the primary sugar found in milk. As lactic acid is produced by the bacteria, the pH of the milk decreases and casein, the primary protein in milk, precipitates causing the curdling or clabbering of milk. This process makes buttermilk thicker than plain milk. While both traditional and cultured buttermilk contain lactic acid, traditional buttermilk tends to be thinner whereas cultured buttermilk is much thicker.

    Originally, buttermilk was the liquid left over from churning butter from cream. Traditionally, before cream could be skimmed from whole milk, it was left to sit for a period of time to allow the cream and milk to separate. During this time, the milk would be fermented by the naturally occurring lactic acid-producing bacteria in the milk. This facilitates the butter churning process since fat from cream with a lower pH will coalesce more readily than that from fresh cream. The acidic environment also helps prevent potentially harmful microorganisms from growing, increasing shelf-life. However, in establishments that used cream separators, the cream would hardly be acid at all.

    In the Indian subcontinent, buttermilk is taken to be the liquid leftover after extracting butter from churned yogurt (dahi). Today, this is called traditional buttermilk. Traditional buttermilk is still common in many Indo-Pakistani households but rarely found in western countries. In Southern India and most areas of the Punjab, buttermilk with added water, sugar and/or salt, asafoetida, and curry leaves is given at stalls in festival times.

    Ref.Buttermilk - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

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