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カード / Curd

このページは2011年 2月 18日, 06:43に更新されました by OpenCage
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    Curds are a dairy product obtained by curdling (coagulating) milk with rennet or an edible acidic substance such as lemon juice or vinegar, and then draining off the liquid portion (called whey). Milk that has been left to sour (raw milk alone or pasteurized milk with added lactic acid bacteria or yeast) will also naturally produce curds, and sour milk cheese is produced this way. The increased acidity causes the milk proteins (casein) to tangle into solid masses, or curds. The rest, which contains only whey proteins, is the whey. In cow's milk, 80% of the proteins are caseins. Curd products vary by region and include cottage cheese, quark (both curdled by bacteria and sometimes also rennet) and paneer (curdled with lemon juice). The word can also refer to a non-dairy substance of similar appearance or consistency, though in these cases a modifier or the word curdled is generally used (e.g., bean curds, lemon curd, or curdled eggs). In England, curds produced from the use of rennet is referred to as junket, with true curds and whey only occurring from the natural separation of milk due to its environment (temperature, acidity).

    In Asia, curds are essentially a vegetarian preparation using yeast to ferment the milk. In some places in Indian subcontinent, particularly in North India, buffalo milk is used for curd due to its higher fat content, making a thicker curd. The quality of curds depends on the starter used. The time taken to curdle also varies with the seasons, taking less than 6 hours in hot weather and up to 16 hours in cold weather. In the industry, an optimal temperature of 43 °C for 4–6 hours is used for preparation.

    In India, the word curd is frequently used to mean yoghurt. In South India, it is common practice to finish any meal with yoghurt or buttermilk.

    In Sweden, curds is a major ingredient of the traditional baked cheesecakes Ostkaka (with egg, flour, almonds), which is eaten with jam and cream.

    In Turkey, curds call as keş and very common in breakfast onto fried bread and also is eaten into macaroni in the region of Bolu and Zonguldak provinces.

    Ref.Curd - Wikipedia

    牛乳を凝固させたものの総称がカードで、乳酸発酵による酸を利用したものがヨーグルト=ダヒ。レンネットは牛乳の凝集のために使うけど目的はチーズを作るため。パニールレモン汁等で凝固させた牛乳だからカードに相当する。

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